How to Restart MySQL/MariaDB Server on Linux and Unix Command Line

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I want to restart my mysqld server after making some changes to my.cnf file. How do I restart mysql server from a command line on a Linux or Unix-like systems?

The syntax is as follows to start, stop, or restart the mysql server on a Linux or Unix-like systems. You must run the following command as per your Linux/Unix variant. You must be the root user to run the following commands.

CentOS/RHEL/Fedora/Scientific Linux version 4.x/5.x/6.x or older users

The syntax is:

### To start ###
service mysqld start
# OR
/etc/init.d/mysqld start

### To stop ###
service mysqld stop
# OR
/etc/init.d/mysqld stop
 
### To restart ###
service mysqld restart
# OR
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart

CentOS/RHEL/Fedora/Scientific Linux version 7.x or newer users

The syntax is as follows to start mariadb/mysql server:

##  mariadb ##
systemctl start mariadb
## mysql 
systemctl start mysqld

The syntax is as follows to stop mariadb/mysql server:

##  mariadb ##
systemctl stop mariadb
## mysql 
systemctl stop mysqld

The syntax is as follows to restart mariadb/mysql szerver:

##  mariadb ##
systemctl restart mariadb
## mysql 
systemctl restart mysqld

Debian/Ubuntu Linux users

The syntax is as follows to start/stop/restart mysql server:

#### To start ####
/etc/init.d/mysql start
# OR
service mysql start
 
#### To stop ####
/etc/init.d/mysql stop
# OR
service mysql stop
 
#### To restart ####
/etc/init.d/mysql restart
# OR
service mysql restart

FreeBSD Unix server user

To start the Mysql server type:

# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server start

To restart the Mysql server type:

# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server restart

To stop the Mysql server type:

# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server stop

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